We are proud to have supplied nanomaterials to many researchers all over the world, who in turn have published fascinating work using these nanoparticles and nanotubes. On this section of our website, we highlight some of this research, highlighting interesting techniques and applications that are achievable with our products, focusing in particular on areas of mechanical, thermal, electrical and biological properties. You can also check out a listing of a vast number of scientific papers that have used our materials.
Improved Mechnical Properties
Spurred by the promise of SiC nanowires' mechanical properties, M. Wieligor et al. used NanoAmor silicon carbide nanoparticles to develop two novel manufacturing protocols for the synthesis of silicon carbide nanowires. These SiC nanowire synthesis methods are based directly on SiC nanopowders and thus do not require catalysts or very high temperatures, providing a significant advantage over other methods such as carbothermal reduction (Si and CNTs), chemical vapor deposition, SiCl3 and CCl4 reactions, and so on. Roughly speaking, the authors' experimental method involved dispersion by ultrasonication in ethyl alcohol, sintering, heat treatment in air and KOH, and ultimately rinsing with alcohol and distilled water. Final results indicated that between the bulk crystal form and nanopowder form of SiC, there are no significant changes in Raman spectra dependencies with respect to temperature or pressure, but that once SiC nanowires are formed, differences do begin to appear. XRD was used to monitor the synthesis of the SiC nanowires during the process, and TEM images indicated that different nanowire diameters (20 nm and 200 nm) can be achieved as a function of sintering conditions.
NanoAmor silicon carbide nanoparticles were also used by W.L.E. Wong and M. Gupta, in their study of silicon carbide reinforcement of magnesium. Such composites are of interest because magnesium has lower density than even aluminum, providing a lightness that can be combined with exceptional strength and toughness if the appropriate type of nanoparticle reinforcement is chosen when designing a composite. The authors were the first to study the effect that different SiC length scales - i.e., different particle sizes - have on such a composite, looking at various mixtures of microscale and nanoscale SiC reinforcement particles. W.L.E. Wong and M. Gupta first used mechanical alloying to mix the magnesium and silicon carbide, followed by compacting, sintering and hot extruding. Testing (by thermomechanical analysis, microstructural characterization, X-Ray diffraction and Vickers microhardness) found that the nanoscale-based composites gave the best strength and ductility, and that a mixture of both microscale and nanoscale SiC will give the greatest overall microhardness.
Improved Thermal Properties
Z. Xia with the Eastman Chemical Company recently patented a composite polymer that uses NanoAmor titanium carbide nanoparticles. These polyester polymers and copolymers achieve improved reheating properties via the TiC particles, thereby addressing of the main challenges faced by the polymer industry, which is the processing of thermoplastics during manufacturing or packaging processes that require increased temperatures. Specifically, in reheat blow-molding the heat absorption efficiency of the polymer is improved through the addition of particles that absorb well in the wavelength region of 500 nm to 1500 nm, where the polymer by itself performs poorly. Using TiC particle sizes on the order of 50 nm, and with concentrations of 1 ppm to 500 ppm, a process was developed for the improvement of polyethylene-terephthalate-based beverage bottle molding, improving the reheating temperature by at least 5 degrees centigrade, which significantly reduces energy costs and increases production throughput.
Improved Electrical Properties
S. Ahmad et al. used the addition of nanosized TiO2 to improve the polymer electrolytes used in Li-ion batteries, an important research area that may yeild great breakthroughs in novel energy sources, with applications such as hybrid electric cars and electronic devices. The research team started with a gel-polymer electrolyte based on PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), which allows for a solid-state device with high ionic conductivity and tunable mechanical stability, both of which are very important attributes for effective batteries. One of the existing problems with such polymer-based electrolytes is their viscosity, which can lead to some undesirable flow. By adding TiO2 nanoparticles to act as inert chemical fillers - they chose our TiO2-anatase for its stability and high surface area - the team found that ionic conductivity can be increased, without any negative effects on other electrochemical properties. Furthermore, the viscosity was increased by over 10 times, greatly reducing the previous flow problems of polymer-based electrolytes. Such improvements point the way to exciting future Li-ion batteries, based on TiO2-nanocomposite polymer electrolytes.
Improved Biological Properties
Zinc oxide nanoparticles, in suspension form, were used by L. Zhang et al. as antibacterial agents against the E. Coli disease-causing bacterium. The ZnO particles actually damage the E. Coli's membrane walls, while also being generally regarded as safe for human beings and animals. By studying the effect of varying particle sizes and concentration, the authors found that as one decreases the ZnO's diameter, the bacteriostatic activity is improved. Further advantages are brought by an increased ZnO concentration. Finally, the authors also note that dispersing the solution via PEG (polyethylene glycol) or via PVP (polyvinylpyrolidone) polymers allows for an improvement in solution stability, while at the same time maintaining the antibacterial benefits of ZnO. Such results have great promise for industries such as food, textiles, packaging and healthcare, as nanostructured inorganics' high-temperature, high-pressure stability begins to be fully exploited.
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Nanopowder, Zinc Iron Oxide Nanopowder, Nanocrystalline Ribbons, Silicone Oxide Nanopowder, Iron Oxide Nanopowder, Cobalt Iron Oxide Nanopowder and many more are available here.
We are currently working on building a list of the scientific papers that have used our nanomaterials. If you have an addition to this list, please contact us, and we will be glad to include it.
- S.V. Ahir and E.M. Terentjev, "Photomechanical actuation in polymer-nanotube composites", Nature Materials, 2005, vol. 4, pp. 491-495. Products used: MWNTsExperimental methods described: dispersing MWNTs uniformly in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS) for MWNT alignment testing; stress and strain mechanical measurements. .
- S.V. Ahir and E.M. Terentjev, "Fast Relaxation of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymer Composite Actuators", Physical Review Letters, 2006, vol. 96, 133902. Products used: MWNTs. Experimental methods described : dispersing MWNTs uniformly in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); photomechanical actuation of elastomers using cold light sources.
- S.V. Ahir et al., "Infrared actuation in aligned polymer-nanotube composites", Physical Review B, 2006, vol. 73, 085420. Products used: 60-100 nm MWNTs. Experimental methods described : dispersing MWNTs uniformly in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), SIS (styrene-isoprenestyrene) and LCE (nematic liquid crystal elastomer); photomechanical actuation of elastomers using near-infrared light; stretching host polymer to induce MWNT alignment.
- S. Ahmad et al., "The effect of nanosized TiO2 addition on poly(methylmethacrylate) based polymer electrolytes", Journal of Power Sources, 2006, vol. 159, pp. 205-209. Products used: TiO2 (Anatase). Experimental methods described : addition of TiO2 to PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) based gel polymer electrolytes (GPE); electrochemical, X-ray diffraction, thermal, rheological and spectroscopic (FTIR) studies of the resulting composite.
- B. Azhdar, "Novel Technique to Improve High-Velocity Cold Compaction: Processing of Polymer Powders and Polymer-Based Nanocomposite High Performance Components", Doctoral Thesis, KTH Chemical Science and Engineering, Stockholm, 2006. Products used: NiFe2O4. Experimental methods described: compaction of polymer-based nanocomposites using HVC (high-velocity cold compaction), HEBM (high-energy ball milling) and relaxation addists.
- S. Bhattacharya et al., "A Novel On-Chip Diagnostic Method to Measure Burn Rates of Energetic Materials", Journal of Energetic Materials, 2006, vol. 24, pp. 1-15.
- P.-S. Chen et al., "Effect of insulating-nanoparticles addition on ion current and voltage-holding ratio in nematic liquid crystal cells", Applied Physics Letters, 2007, vol. 90, 211111.
- S.Y. Chew et al., "Novel nano-silicon/polypyrrole composites for lithium storage", Electrochemistry Communications, 2007, vol. 9, pp. 941-946.
- C.H. Chon et al., "Empirical correlation finding the role of temperature and particle size for nanofluid (Al2O3) thermal conductivity enhancement", Applied Physics Letters, 2005, vol. 87, 87153107.
- D. Cui et al., "Experimental Study of Filling Carbon Nanotubes With Nucleic Acids", Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 2004, vol. 820, pp. 89-99.
- Y. Cui at al., "Formation of Dendritic Nanotubes Under an Electric Field", Advanced Engineering Materials, 2005, vol. 7, pp. 827-829.
- R.P. Deo et al., "Electrochemical detection of amino acids at carbon nanotube and nickel-carbon nanotube modified electrodes", The Analyst, 2004, vol. 129, pp. 1076-1081.
- R.P. Deo and J. Wang, "Electrochemical detection of carbohydrates at carbon-nanotube modified glassy-carbon electrodes", Electrochemistry Communications, 2004, vol. 6, pp. 284-287.
- R.P. Deo et al., "Determination of organophosphate pesticides at a carbon nanotube/organophosphorus hydrolase electrochemical biosensor", Analytica Chimica Acta, 2005, vol. 530, pp. 185-189.
- H. Dong et al., "Magnetic Nanocomposite for Potential Ultrahigh Frequency Microelectronic Application", Journal of Electronic Materials, 2007, vol. 36, pp. 593-597.
- B. Ferrari and R. Moreno, "Ni-YSZ Graded Coatings Produced by Dipping", Advanced Engineering Materials, 2004, vol. 6, pp. 969-971.
- V. Georgakilas et al., "Amino acid functionalisation of water soluble carbon nanotubes", Chemical Communications, 2002, pp. 3050-3051.
- C.S. Goh et al., "The Static and Cyclic Deformation Behaviours Mg-Y2O3 Nanocomposites", Key Engineering Materials, 2007, vol. 345, pp. 267-270.
- E. Granot et al., "Enhanced Bioelectrocatalysis Using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs)/Polyaniline Hybrid Systems in Thin-Film and Microrod Structures Associated with Electrodes", Electroanalysis, 2006, vol. 18, pp. 26-34.
- V.H. Grassian et al., "Inhalation Exposure Study of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles with a Primary Particle Size of 2 to 5 nm", Environmental Health Perspectives, 2007, vol. 115, pp. 397-402.
- D.M. Guldi et al., "Multiwalled carbon nanotubes in donor-acceptor nanohybrids?towards long-lived electron transfer products", Chemical Communications, 2005, pp. 2038-2040.
- Z.P. Guo et al., "Study of silicon/polypyrrole composite as anode materials for Li-ion batteries", Journal of Power Sources, 2005, vol. 146, pp. 448-451.
- L.F. Hakim et al., "Aggregation behavior of nanoparticles in fluidized beds", Powder Technology, 2005, vol. 160, pp. 149-160.
- S.F. Hassan and M. Gupta, "Effect of different types of nano-size oxide particulates on microstructural and mechanical properties of elemental Mg", Journal of Materials Science, 2006, vol. 41, pp. 2229-2236.
- S.F. Hassan and M. Gupta, "Development and Characterization of Ductile Mg/Y2O3 Nanocomposites", Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, 2007, vol. 129, pp. 462-467.
- S.F. Hassan and M. Gupta, "Development of nano-Y2O3 containing magnesium nanocomposites using solidification processing", Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2007, vol. 429, pp. 176-183.
- Y.Y. Huang et al., "Dispersion rheology of carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix", Physical Review B, 2006, vol. 73, 125422.
- F. Hauquier et al., "Carbon nanotube-functionalized silicon surfaces with efficient redox communication", Chemical Communications, 2006, pp. 4536-4538.
- Y.-S. Hu et al., "High Lithium Electroactivity of Nanometer-Sized Rutile TiO2", Advanced Materials, 2006, vol. 16, pp. 1421-1426.
- M.E. Kabir et al., "Effect of ultrasound sonication in carbon nanofibers/polyurethane foam composite", Materials Science and Engineering A, 2007, vol. 459, pp. 111-116.
- M. Kakazey et al., "Solid-State Reactivity of the ZnO-xMn2O3 System During Heat Treatment", Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 2006, vol. 89, pp. 1458-1460.
- L. Karpowich et al., "Synthesis and characterization of mixed-morphology CePO4 nanoparticles", Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 2007, vol. 180, pp. 840-846.
- K.A. Khalil and S.W. Kim, "Effect of Processing Parameters on the Mechanical and Microstructural Behavior of Ultra-Fine Al2O3-(ZrO218%Mol Y2O3) Bioceramic, Densified By High-Frequency Induction Heat Sintering", International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, 2006, vol. 3, pp. 322-330.
- H.-C. Kim et al., "Rapid Sintering of Nanocrystalline 8 mol.% Y2O3-Stabilized ZrO2 by High Frequency Induction Heating Method", Metals and Materials International, 2006, vol. 12, pp. 393-398.
- H.-C. Kim et al., "Sintering behavior and mechanical properties of binderless WC-TiC produced by pulsed current activated sintering", Journal of Ceramic Processing Research, 2007, vol. 8, pp. 91-97.
- H.-C. Kim et al., "Sintering of ultra-fine tetragonal yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramics", Journal of Materials Science, 2007, vol. 42, pp. 9409-9414.
- S.W. Kim and K. A.-R. Khalil, "High-Frequency Induction Heat Sintering of Mechanically Alloyed Alumina-Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Nano-Bioceramics", Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 2006, vol. 89, pp. 1280-1285.
- S.W. Kim and K. A.-R. Khalil, "Synthesis and Densification of Nanostructured Al2O3-(ZrO2+3%Mol Y2O3) Bioceramics by High-Frequency Induction Heat Sintering", Materials Science Forum, 2007, vol. 534-536, pp. 601-604.
- S. Kumar et al., "Binding of Carbon Nanotubes Dispersed by Optical Tweezer on Silicon Surface", Journal of Nanotechnology Online, 2006, vol. 2, 10.2240/azojono0112.
- W.M. Kwok et al., "Time-resolved photoluminescence study of the stimulated emission in ZnO nanoneedles", Applied Physics Letters, 2005, vol. 87, 093108.
- S.-J. Lee et al., "Rapid Hydrolysis of Organophosphorous Esters Induced by Nanostructured, Fluorine-Doped Titania Replicas of Diatom Frustules", Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 2007, vol. 90, pp. 1632-1636.
- Y.H. Leung et al., "Zinc oxide ribbon and comb structures: synthesis and optical properties", Chemical Physics Letters, 2004, vol. 394, pp. 452-457.
- Y.H. Leung et al., "ZnO Nanoshells: Synthesis, Structure, and Optical Properties", Journal of Crystal Growth, 2005, vol. 283, pp. 134-140.
- L. Li et al., "Polymer Crystallization-Driven, Periodic Patterning on Carbon Nanotubes", Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2006, vol. 128, pp. 1692-1699.
- W. Li et al., "Preparation and characterization of monolithic polyaniline-graphite composite actuators", Polymer, 2004, vol. 45, pp. 4769-4775.
- V. Lovat et al., "Carbon Nanotube Substrates Boost Neuronal Electrical Signaling", Nano Letters, 2005, vol. 5, pp. 1107-1110.
- S.Y. Ly et al., "Measuring mercury ion concentration with a carbon nano tube paste electrode using the cyclic voltammetry method", Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 2005, vol. 35, pp. 567-571.
- S.Y. Ly, "Detection of dopamine in the pharmacy with a carbon nanotube paste electrode using voltammetry", Bioelectrochemistry, 2006, vol. 68, pp. 227-231.
- S.Y. Ly, "Real-time Voltammetric Assay of Cadmium Ions in Plant Tissue and Fish Brain Core", Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, 2006, vol. 27, pp. 1613-1617.
- S.Y. Ly and D.Y. Kim, "Electrochemical Assay of Neurotransmitter Glycine in Brain Cells", Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, 2007, vol. 28, pp. 515-519.
- K. Maca et al., "Sintering of Bulk Zirconia Nanoceramics", Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci., 2003, vol. 5., pp. 183-186.
- S. Maensiri and W. Nuansing, "Thermoelectric oxide NaCo2O4 nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning", Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2006, vol. 99, pp. 104-108.
- S. Maensiri et al., "Carbon nanofiber-reinforced alumina nanocomposites: Fabrication and mechanical properties", Materials Science and Engineering A, 2007, vol. 447, pp. 44-50.
- S. Maensiri et al., "Synthesis and optical properties of nanocrystalline V-doped ZnO powders", Optical Materials, 2007, vol. 29, pp. 1700-1705.
- P. Majewski et al., "Synthesis and characterisation of star polymer/silicon carbide nanocomposites", Materials Science and Engineering A, 2006, vol. 434, pp. 360-364.
- N. Mandzy et al., "Breakage of TiO2 agglomerates in electrostatically stabilized aqueous dispersions", Powder Technology, 2005, vol. 160, pp. 121-126.
- C.D. Martin et al., "Quantitative high-pressure pair distribution function analysis of nanocrystalline gold", Applied Physics Letters, 2005, vol. 86, 061910.
- F.D. McDaniel et al., "Ion beam analysis of hydrogen retained in carbon nanotubes and carbon films", Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 2006, vol. 249, pp. 330-334.
- M.R. McDevitt et al., "Tumor Targeting with Antibody-Functionalized, Radiolabeled Carbon Nanotubes", The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 2007, vol. 48, pp. 1180-1189.
- E. Menna et al., "Carbon Nanotubes on HPLC Silica Microspheres", Carbon, 2006, vol. 44, pp. 1581-1616.
- S.M.S. Murshed et al., "Enhanced thermal conductivity of TiO2 water based nanofluids", International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 2005, vol. 44, pp. 367-373.
- S.M.S. Murshed et al., "Determination of the effective thermal diffusivity of nanofluids by the double hot-wire technique", Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2006, vol. 39, pp.5316-5322.
- F.U. Naab et al., "The role of metallic impurities in the interaction of carbon nanotubes with microwave radiation", 10th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission and its Analytical Applications, 2004, pp. 601.1-601.4.
- F.U. Naab et al., "Direct measurement of hydrogen adsorption in carbon nanotubes/nanofibers by elastic recoil detection", Physics Letters A, 2006, vol. 356, pp. 152-155.
- C. Norfolk et al., "Processing of mesocarbon microbeads to high-performance materials: Part II. Reaction bonding by in situ silicon carbide and nitride formation", Carbon, 2006, vol. 44, pp. 293-300.
- C.C. Oey et al., "Nanocomposite hole injection layer for organic device applications", Thin Solid Films, 2005, vol. 492, pp. 253-258.
- C.C. Oey et al., "Single-walled carbon nanotube composites as hole injection layer for organic light emitting diode applications", Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2005, vol. 871E, pp. I9.16.1-I9.16.6.
- C.S. Ozkan et al., "Heterojunctions of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Semiconducting Nanocrystals for Electronic Device Applications", Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2004, vol. EXS-2, pp. M1.1.1-M1.1.8.
- B. Palosz et al., "Combining Hard With Soft Materials in Nanoscale Under High-Pressure High-Temperature Conditions", Innovative Superhard Materials and Sustainable Coatings for Advanced Manufacturing, 2005, pp. 43-62.
- D. Pantarotto et al., "Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes for Plasmid DNA Gene Delivery", Angewandte Chemie, 2004, vol. 116, pp. 5354-5358.
- C. Probst et al., "Enhanced Wettability by Copper Electroless Coating of Carbon Nanotubes", Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, 2006, vol. 26, pp. 263-270.
- C. Probst et al., "Imaging of carbon nanotubes with tin-palladium particles using STEM detector in a FE-SEM", Micron, 2007, vol. 38, pp. 402-408.
- K. Pulskamp et al., "Carbon nanotubes show no sign of acute toxicity but induce intracellular reactive oxygen species in dependence on contaminants", Toxicology Letters, 2007, vol. 168, pp. 58-74.
- H. Rajoria and N. Jalili, "Passive vibration damping enhancement using carbon nanotube-epoxy reinforced composites", Composites Science and Technology, 2005, vol. 65, pp. 2079-2093.
- V.K. Rangari et al., "Thermal and Mechanical Characterization of Expancel Nanocomposite", 9th International Conference on Engineering Education, 2006, session M4J, pp. 17-21.
- S. Ravindran et al., "Covalent Coupling of Quantum Dots to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Electronic Device Applications", Nano Letters, 2003, vol. 3, pp. 447-453.
- S. Ravindran et al., "Self assembly of ordered artificial solids of semiconducting ZnS capped CdSe nanoparticles at carbon nanotube ends", Carbon, 2004, vol. 42, pp. 1537-1542.
- S. Ravindran and C.S. Ozkan, "Self-assembly of ZnO nanoparticles to electrostatic coordination sites of functionalized carbon nanotubes", Nanotechnology, 2005, vol. 16, pp. 1130-1136.
- S. Shahrokhian and M. Amiri, "Multi-walled carbon nanotube paste electrode for selective voltammetric detection of isoniazid", Microchimica Acta, 2007, vol. 157, pp. 149-158.
- R. Singh et al., "Tissue biodistribution and blood clearance rates of intravenously administered carbon nanotube radiotracers", PNAS, 2006, vol. 103, pp. 3357-3362.
- A.K. Speck et al., "The Effect of Stellar Evolution on SiC Dust Grain Sizes", The Astrophysical Journal, 2005, vol. 634, pp. 426-435.
- T. Sreethawong et al., "A simple route utilizing surfactant-assisted templating sol-gel process for synthesis of mesoporous Dy2O3 nanocrystal", Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2006, vol. 300, pp. 219-224.
- M.K. Sunkara et al., "Bulk synthesis of a-SixNyH and a-SixOy straight and coiled nanowires", Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2004, vol. 14, pp. 590-594.
- N. Tagmatarchis et al., "Separation and purification of functionalised water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes by flow field-flow fractionation", Carbon, 2005, vol. 43, pp. 1984-1989.
- K.-S. Teh and L. Lin, "MEMS sensor material based on polypyrrole-carbon nanotube nanocomposite: film deposition and characterization", Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 2005, vol. 15, pp. 2019-2027.
- K.-S. Teh et al., "MEMS fabrication based on nickel-nanocomposite: film deposition and characterization", Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 2005, vol. 15, pp. 2205-2215.
- S.K. Thakur et al., "Microwave Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium Based Composites Containing Nanosized SiC and Hybrid (SiC+Al2O3) Reinforcements", Transactions of the ASME, 2007, vol. 129, pp. 194-199.
- M.A. Thein, "Mechanical properties of nanostructured Mg-5 wt%Al-x wt%AlN composite synthesized from Mg chips", Composite Structures, 2006, vol. 75, pp. 206-212.
- S.C. Tjong et al., "Electrical Properties of Low Density Polyethylene/ZnO Nanocomposites: The Effect of Thermal Treatments", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2006, vol. 102, pp. 1436-1444.
- N. Tombros et al., "Separating spin and charge transport in single-wall carbon nanotubes", Physical Review B, 2006, vol. 73, 233403.
- S. Vennila et al., "Compression behavior of nanosized nickel and molybdenum", Applied Physics Letters, 2006, vol. 89, 261901.
- G.X. Wang et al., "Characterization of Nanocrystalline Si-MCMB Composite Anode Materials", Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 2004, vol. 7, pp. A250-A253.
- G.X. Wang et al., "Nanostructured Si-C composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries", Electrochemistry Communications, 2004, vol. 6, pp. 689-692.
- Y. Wang et al., "SiC-CNT nanocomposites: high pressure reaction synthesis and characterization", Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 2006, vol. 18, pp. 275-282.
- Y. Wang and T.W. Zerda, "The mechanism of the solid-state reaction between carbon nanotubes and nanocrystalline silicon under high pressure and at high temperature", Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 2006, vol. 18, pp. 2995-3003.
- Y. Wang and T.W. Zerda, "Microstructure evaluations of carbon nanotube/diamond/silicon carbide nanostructured composites by size-strain line-broadening analysis methods", Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 2007, vol. 19, 356205.
- M. Wieligor et al., "Raman spectra of silicon carbide small particles and nanowires", Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 2005, vol. 17, pp. 2387-2395.
- W.L.E. Wong and M. Gupta, "Effect of hybrid length scales (micro + nano) of SiC reinforcement on the properties of magnesium", Solid State Phenomena, 2006, vol. 111, pp. 91-94.
- Z. Xia, United States Patent 20060105129, 2006.
- Z. Xu et al., "Exploration of Electrophoretic Deposition of YSZ Electrolyte for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells", Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 2005, vol. 835, pp. 175-180.
- Z. Xu et al., "Electrophoretic deposition of YSZ electrolyte coatings for solid oxide fuel cells", Surface & Coatings Technology, 2006, vol. 201, pp. 4484-4488.
- B. Yoon and C.M. Wai, "Microemulsion-Templated Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube-Supported Pd and Rh Nanoparticles for Catalytic Applications", Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2005, vol. 127, pp. 17174-17175.
- L. Zhang et al., "Investigation into the antibacterial behaviour of suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO nanofluids)", Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2007, vol. 9, pp. 479-489.
- Y. Zheng et al., "Multichannel multiphoton imaging of metal oxides nanoparticles in biological system", Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences IV, 2004, Proceedings of SPIE vol. 5323, pp. 390-399.
- Z. Zhu et al., "Investigating Linear and Nonlinear Viscoelastic Behavior Using Model Silica-Particle-Filled Polybutadiene", Macromolecules, 2005, vol. 38, pp. 8816-8824.